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Culture-based Education Research Resources

Culture-based education (CBE), and more specifically Hawaiian culture-based education (HCBE), is a key lever to achieving Kamehameha School’s (KS) Vision 2040 of a thriving lāhui. We believe that HCBE instills confidence and resiliency in Native Hawaiian learners to improve the well-being of the lāhui. An HCBE system engages Native Hawaiian learners to reach positive socio-emotional and academic outcomes. For that reason, KS is committed to creating and promoting an HCBE system where all students, Native Hawaiian learners in particular, will thrive and reach their full potential.

What is Culture-Based Education? 

CBE is grounded in the foundational values, norms, knowledge, beliefs, practices, experiences, and language of a(n indigenous) culture. It “places significance on Native language; place-based, and experiential learning, cultural identity; holistic well-being; and personal connections and belonging to family, community, and ancestors” (Alcantara, Keahiolalo, and Peirce, 2016). The literature base for CBE describes five basic elements that comprise this approach: Language, Family & Community, Context, Content, and Data & Accountability.

What is Hawaiian Culture-Based Education? 

In HCBE, the five elements of CBE are applied specifically from a Native Hawaiian perspective. For example, HCBE practitioners strive to incorporate ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian language) in the classroom and involve family and community in the development of Hawaiian-centered curricula relevant to learners. By sustaining the values, traditions, and language of Hawaiʻi through HCBE, we hope to see Native Hawaiians grow in success and contribute to their communities both locally and globally.

Culture-Based Education Resource Collection

This HCBE collection includes exclusively research-focused resources that explore CBE and HCBE in varying contexts. Users should make their own assessments of the quality of the data from these sources. It is our hope that these resources will support your journey to ʻimi naʻauao, or seek wisdom, that would strengthen the lāhui.

If you would like a research study to be included in this collection, please email us at

Our goal is to disseminate the results of our work as broadly as possible to benefit our communities and lāhui.

Search our collection using the filters below to narrow results. You may select multiple filters.

Title Author(s) Year Age band Type Topics
Use of Native Language and Culture (NLC) in Elementary and Middle School Instruction as a Predictor of Mathematics Achievement Mark J. Van Ryzin and Claudia G. Vincent 2017 K-12 Journal Education (general)
Triarchically-Based Instruction and Assessment of Sixth-Grade Mathematics in a Yup'ik Cultural Setting in Alaska Robert J. Sternberg, Jerry Lipka, Tina Newman, Sandra Wildfeuer, and Elena L. Grigorenko 2005 K-12 Journal
The Influences of Indigenous Heritage Language Education on Students and Families in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program Rebecca J. I. Luning and Lois A. Yamauchi 2010 General Journal
The Effects of a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program on Student and Family Development Rebecca J.I. Luning 2007 K-12 Dissertation
The Development of an Inventory of Exemplary Hawaiian Leadership Behaviors Guy Kaulukukui and Daniel Nahoʻopiʻi 2008 General Journal
Psychometric Properties of the Hawaiian Culture Scale - Adolescent Version Earl Hishinuma, Naleen Andrade, Ronal Johnson, John McArdle, Robin Miyamoto, Linda Nahulu George Makini, Noelle Yuen, Stephanie Nishimura, John McDermott, Jane Waldron, Kenneth Luke, and Alayne Yates 2000 K-12 Journal
Native Hawaiians in Public Schools: Implications of AYP Status in Predominantly Native Hawaiian Schools Wendy Kekahio 2007 K-12 Brief
Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment Update 2009: A Supplement to Ka Huakaʻi 2005 Kamehameha Schools 2009 General Report
Mohala i ka wai: Cultural Advantage as a Framework for Indigenous Culture-Based Education and Student Outcomes Shawn M. Kanaiaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and Nolan Malone 2017 K-12 Journal
Measuring Native Hawaiian Leadership Among Graduates of Native Hawaiian Charter Schools Amelia Rachel Hokule‘a Borofsky 2010 Adulthood Journal Oiwi (Cultural identity & intelligence)
Making Meaning: Connecting School to Hawaiian Students' Lives Lois A. Yamauchi, Tasha R. Wyatt, and Alice H. Taum 2005 K-12 Journal
Left Behind? The Status of Hawaiian Students in Hawaiʻi Public School Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Koren Ishibashi 2003 K-12 Report
Kū i Ke Ao: Hawaiian Cultural Identity and Student Progress at Kamehameha Elementary School Robert Holoua Stender 2010 K-12 Dissertation
Kikī Nā Wai: Swiftly Flowing Streams, Examples of ʻOhana and Community Integration in Culture-Based Education Brandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Walter Kahumoku, III 2008 General Brief
Ke Aʻo Hawaiʻi (Critical Elements for Hawaiian Learning): Perceptions of Successful Hawaiian Educators Alice J. Kawakami and K. Kanani Aton 2001 General Journal
Ka Huaka‘i: 2005 Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni, Nolan Malone, and Koren Ishibashi 2005 General Report
Initial psychometric validation of he ana mana‘o o nā mo‘omeheu Hawai‘i: A Hawaiian ethnocultural inventory (HEI) of cultural practices Kamanaʻopono Crabbe 2002 General Dissertation Demographics
Improving the Practice of Evaluation Through Indigenous Values and Methods: Decolonizing Evaluation Practice-Returning the Gaze from Hawaiʻi to Aotearoa Alice J. Kawakami, Kanani Aton, Fiona Cram, Morris K. Lai, and Laurie Porima 2007 General Journal
Improving academic performance among Native American students: A review of research literature. William Demmert Jr. 2003 General Report
Hoʻopilina: The call for cultural relevance in education Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Brandon Ledward 2013 General Journal
Hoʻomau i nā ʻŌpio Field-Test Findings from the 2008 Pilot-Test of the Nā ʻŌpio Youth Development and Assests Survey Katherine Tibbets and Shawna Medeiros 2008 K-12 Report
Ho‘opilina Kumu: Culture-Based Education among Hawai‘i Teachers Brandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Kristin Elia 2009 General Report
Ho‘omau i nā ōpio: Field-test findings of the nā ‘ōpio: Youth development and assessment survey Katherine Tibbets, Shawna Medeiros, and Jacqueline Ng-Osorio 2009 K-12 Report
He Pūkoʻa Kani ʻĀina: Mapping Student Growth in Hawaiian-Focused Charter School Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni 2008 K-12 Journal
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): School Engagement among Hawaiian Students Brennan Takayama and Brandon Ledward 2009 K-12 Report
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Culture-Based Education among Hawai‘i Teachers Brandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Kristin Elia 2009 General Report
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Cultural Knowledge and Practice among Hawaiian Students Brandon Ledward and Brennan Takayama 2009 K-12 Report Education (general)
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Community Attachment and Giveback among Hawaiian Students Brandon Ledward and Brennan Takayama 2009 K-12 Report
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): 'Ohana and Community Integration in Culture-Based Education Brandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Walter Kahumoku, III 2008 General Report
Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness: HCC Survey and Its Uses Kamehameha Schools 2009 K-12 Instrument
Hawaiʻi Charter Schools: Initial Trends and Select Outcomes for Native Hawaiian Students Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Koren Ishibashi 2005 K-12 Report
From a Place Deep Inside: Culturally Appropriate Curriculum as the Emodiment of Navajo-ness in Classroom Pedagogy Tarajean Yazzie-Mintz 2007 General Journal Hawaiian Culture-based Education
Family Involvement in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program Lois A. Yamauchi, Jo-Anne Lau-Smith, and Rebecca J.I. Luning 2008 K-12 Journal
Education with Aloha and Student Assets Katherine Tibbets, Kū Kahakalau, and Zanette Johnson 2007 K-12 Journal
Education and Native Hawaiian Children: Revisiting KEEP Roland G. Tharp, Cathie Jordan, Gisela E. Speidel, Kathryn Hu-Pei Au, Thomas W. Klein, Roderick P. Calkin, Kim C.M. Sloat, and Ronald Gallimore 2007 K-12 Journal
E nānā i ke kumu. A Look at the Teacher: A study of the essential competencies of a Pūnana Leo teacher Noelani Iokepa-Guerrero 2004 General Dissertation
E Lauhoe mai nā wa‘a: Toward a Hawaiian indigenous education teaching framework Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Keiki Kawaiʻaeʻa 2008 General Journal
Culture-Based Education and Its Relationship to Student Outcomes Shawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and ʻUmi Jensen 2013 K-12 Journal
Culturally Responsive Schooling for Indigenous Youth: A Review of the Literature Angelina E. Castagno and Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy 2008 K-12 Journal
Culturally Congruent Teaching Strategies: Voices From the Field Nanette S. Schonleber 2007 General Journal
Culturally Based Math Education as a Way to Improve Alaska Native Students’ Math Performance Jerry Lipka and Barbara Adams 2004 K-12 Working Paper
Critical Culturally Sustaining/Revitalizing Pedagogy and Indigenous Education Sovereignty Teresa L. McCarty and Tiffany S. Lee 2014 General Journal Families, Communities, and Systems
Constant Perimeter, Varying Area: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning Mathematics to Design a Fish Rack Anthony Rickard 2005 K-12 Journal
An Exploratory Study of Cultural Identity and Culture-Based Educational Program for Urban American Indian Students Kristin M. Powers 2006 K-12 Journal
Aloha Counts: Census 2000 special tabulations for Native Hawaiians Kamehameha Schools 2003 General Report
Academic Achievement Across School Types in Hawaiʻi: Outcomes for Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian students in conventional public schools, western-focused charters, and Hawaiian language and culture-based schools Brennan Takayama 2008 K-12 Journal
A Review of the Research Literature on the Influences of Culturally Based Education on the Academic Performance of Native American Students William Demmert Jr. and John C. Towner 2003 General Report
A Native Hawaiian Focus on the Hawaiʻi Public School System, SY2015 Office of Hawaiian Affairs 2017 K-12 Report

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