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Culture-based Education Research Resources

Culture-based education (CBE), and more specifically Hawaiian culture-based education (HCBE), is a key lever to achieving Kamehameha School’s (KS) Vision 2040 of a thriving lāhui. We believe that HCBE instills confidence and resiliency in Native Hawaiian learners to improve the well-being of the lāhui. An HCBE system engages Native Hawaiian learners to reach positive socio-emotional and academic outcomes. For that reason, KS is committed to creating and promoting an HCBE system where all students, Native Hawaiian learners in particular, will thrive and reach their full potential.

What is Culture-Based Education? 

CBE is grounded in the foundational values, norms, knowledge, beliefs, practices, experiences, and language of a(n indigenous) culture. It “places significance on Native language; place-based, and experiential learning, cultural identity; holistic well-being; and personal connections and belonging to family, community, and ancestors” (Alcantara, Keahiolalo, and Peirce, 2016). The literature base for CBE describes five basic elements that comprise this approach: Language, Family & Community, Context, Content, and Data & Accountability.

What is Hawaiian Culture-Based Education? 

In HCBE, the five elements of CBE are applied specifically from a Native Hawaiian perspective. For example, HCBE practitioners strive to incorporate ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian language) in the classroom and involve family and community in the development of Hawaiian-centered curricula relevant to learners. By sustaining the values, traditions, and language of Hawaiʻi through HCBE, we hope to see Native Hawaiians grow in success and contribute to their communities both locally and globally.

Culture-Based Education Resource Collection

This HCBE collection includes exclusively research-focused resources that explore CBE and HCBE in varying contexts. Users should make their own assessments of the quality of the data from these sources. It is our hope that these resources will support your journey to ʻimi naʻauao, or seek wisdom, that would strengthen the lāhui.

If you would like a research study to be included in this collection, please email us at

Our goal is to disseminate the results of our work as broadly as possible to benefit our communities and lāhui.

Search our collection using the filters below to narrow results. You may select multiple filters.

TitleAuthor(s)YearAge bandTypeTopics
Use of Native Language and Culture (NLC) in Elementary and Middle School Instruction as a Predictor of Mathematics AchievementMark J. Van Ryzin and Claudia G. Vincent2017K-12JournalEducation (general)
Triarchically-Based Instruction and Assessment of Sixth-Grade Mathematics in a Yup'ik Cultural Setting in AlaskaRobert J. Sternberg, Jerry Lipka, Tina Newman, Sandra Wildfeuer, and Elena L. Grigorenko2005K-12Journal
The Influences of Indigenous Heritage Language Education on Students and Families in a Hawaiian Language Immersion ProgramRebecca J. I. Luning and Lois A. Yamauchi2010GeneralJournal
The Effects of a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program on Student and Family DevelopmentRebecca J.I. Luning2007K-12Dissertation
The Development of an Inventory of Exemplary Hawaiian Leadership BehaviorsGuy Kaulukukui and Daniel Nahoʻopiʻi2008GeneralJournal
Psychometric Properties of the Hawaiian Culture Scale - Adolescent VersionEarl Hishinuma, Naleen Andrade, Ronal Johnson, John McArdle, Robin Miyamoto, Linda Nahulu George Makini, Noelle Yuen, Stephanie Nishimura, John McDermott, Jane Waldron, Kenneth Luke, and Alayne Yates2000K-12Journal
Native Hawaiians in Public Schools: Implications of AYP Status in Predominantly Native Hawaiian SchoolsWendy Kekahio2007K-12Brief
Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment Update 2009: A Supplement to Ka Huakaʻi 2005Kamehameha Schools2009GeneralReport
Mohala i ka wai: Cultural Advantage as a Framework for Indigenous Culture-Based Education and Student OutcomesShawn M. Kanaiaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and Nolan Malone2017K-12Journal
Measuring Native Hawaiian Leadership Among Graduates of Native Hawaiian Charter SchoolsAmelia Rachel Hokule‘a Borofsky2010AdulthoodJournalOiwi (Cultural identity & intelligence)
Making Meaning: Connecting School to Hawaiian Students' LivesLois A. Yamauchi, Tasha R. Wyatt, and Alice H. Taum2005K-12Journal
Left Behind? The Status of Hawaiian Students in Hawaiʻi Public SchoolShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Koren Ishibashi2003K-12Report
Kū i Ke Ao: Hawaiian Cultural Identity and Student Progress at Kamehameha Elementary SchoolRobert Holoua Stender2010K-12Dissertation
Kikī Nā Wai: Swiftly Flowing Streams, Examples of ʻOhana and Community Integration in Culture-Based EducationBrandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Walter Kahumoku, III2008GeneralBrief
Ke Aʻo Hawaiʻi (Critical Elements for Hawaiian Learning): Perceptions of Successful Hawaiian EducatorsAlice J. Kawakami and K. Kanani Aton2001GeneralJournal
Ka Huaka‘i: 2005 Native Hawaiian Educational AssessmentShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni, Nolan Malone, and Koren Ishibashi2005GeneralReport
Initial psychometric validation of he ana mana‘o o nā mo‘omeheu Hawai‘i: A Hawaiian ethnocultural inventory (HEI) of cultural practicesKamanaʻopono Crabbe2002GeneralDissertationDemographics
Improving the Practice of Evaluation Through Indigenous Values and Methods: Decolonizing Evaluation Practice-Returning the Gaze from Hawaiʻi to AotearoaAlice J. Kawakami, Kanani Aton, Fiona Cram, Morris K. Lai, and Laurie Porima2007GeneralJournal
Improving academic performance among Native American students: A review of research literature.William Demmert Jr.2003GeneralReport
Hoʻopilina: The call for cultural relevance in educationShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Brandon Ledward2013GeneralJournal
Hoʻomau i nā ʻŌpio Field-Test Findings from the 2008 Pilot-Test of the Nā ʻŌpio Youth Development and Assests SurveyKatherine Tibbets and Shawna Medeiros2008K-12Report
Ho‘opilina Kumu: Culture-Based Education among Hawai‘i TeachersBrandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Kristin Elia2009GeneralReport
Ho‘omau i nā ōpio: Field-test findings of the nā ‘ōpio: Youth development and assessment surveyKatherine Tibbets, Shawna Medeiros, and Jacqueline Ng-Osorio2009K-12Report
He Pūkoʻa Kani ʻĀina: Mapping Student Growth in Hawaiian-Focused Charter SchoolShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni2008K-12Journal
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): School Engagement among Hawaiian StudentsBrennan Takayama and Brandon Ledward2009K-12Report
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Culture-Based Education among Hawai‘i TeachersBrandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Kristin Elia2009GeneralReport
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Cultural Knowledge and Practice among Hawaiian StudentsBrandon Ledward and Brennan Takayama2009K-12ReportEducation (general)
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): Community Attachment and Giveback among Hawaiian StudentsBrandon Ledward and Brennan Takayama2009K-12Report
Hawaiian Cultural Influences in Education (HCIE): 'Ohana and Community Integration in Culture-Based EducationBrandon Ledward, Brennan Takayama, and Walter Kahumoku, III2008GeneralReport
Hawaiian Cultural Connectedness: HCC Survey and Its UsesKamehameha Schools2009K-12Instrument
Hawaiʻi Charter Schools: Initial Trends and Select Outcomes for Native Hawaiian StudentsShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Koren Ishibashi2005K-12Report
From a Place Deep Inside: Culturally Appropriate Curriculum as the Emodiment of Navajo-ness in Classroom PedagogyTarajean Yazzie-Mintz2007GeneralJournalHawaiian Culture-based Education
Family Involvement in a Hawaiian Language Immersion ProgramLois A. Yamauchi, Jo-Anne Lau-Smith, and Rebecca J.I. Luning2008K-12Journal
Education with Aloha and Student AssetsKatherine Tibbets, Kū Kahakalau, and Zanette Johnson2007K-12Journal
Education and Native Hawaiian Children: Revisiting KEEPRoland G. Tharp, Cathie Jordan, Gisela E. Speidel, Kathryn Hu-Pei Au, Thomas W. Klein, Roderick P. Calkin, Kim C.M. Sloat, and Ronald Gallimore2007K-12Journal
E nānā i ke kumu. A Look at the Teacher: A study of the essential competencies of a Pūnana Leo teacherNoelani Iokepa-Guerrero2004GeneralDissertation
E Lauhoe mai nā wa‘a: Toward a Hawaiian indigenous education teaching frameworkShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni and Keiki Kawaiʻaeʻa2008GeneralJournal
Culture-Based Education and Its Relationship to Student OutcomesShawn M. Kanaʻiaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and ʻUmi Jensen2013K-12Journal
Culturally Responsive Schooling for Indigenous Youth: A Review of the LiteratureAngelina E. Castagno and Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy2008K-12Journal
Culturally Congruent Teaching Strategies: Voices From the FieldNanette S. Schonleber2007GeneralJournal
Culturally Based Math Education as a Way to Improve Alaska Native Students’ Math PerformanceJerry Lipka and Barbara Adams2004K-12Working Paper
Critical Culturally Sustaining/Revitalizing Pedagogy and Indigenous Education SovereigntyTeresa L. McCarty and Tiffany S. Lee2014GeneralJournalFamilies, Communities, and Systems
Constant Perimeter, Varying Area: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning Mathematics to Design a Fish RackAnthony Rickard2005K-12Journal
An Exploratory Study of Cultural Identity and Culture-Based Educational Program for Urban American Indian StudentsKristin M. Powers2006K-12Journal
Aloha Counts: Census 2000 special tabulations for Native HawaiiansKamehameha Schools2003GeneralReport
Academic Achievement Across School Types in Hawaiʻi: Outcomes for Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian students in conventional public schools, western-focused charters, and Hawaiian language and culture-based schoolsBrennan Takayama2008K-12Journal
A Review of the Research Literature on the Influences of Culturally Based Education on the Academic Performance of Native American StudentsWilliam Demmert Jr. and John C. Towner2003GeneralReport
A Native Hawaiian Focus on the Hawaiʻi Public School System, SY2015Office of Hawaiian Affairs2017K-12Report

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